Biology Achievement Review

Test 1 - Chapters 1-3 Biochemistry Test 1 Ch 28 - 30: (Tissues), Homeostasis, Nervous System & Senses Test 1 Ch 16-17: Diversity of Life
Test 2 - Chapters 4-5
Test 2 Ch 31-32: Endocrinology & Skeletomuscular System Test 2 Ch 31-33: Plant Structure & Function
Test 3 - Chapters 6-7
Respiration & Photosynthesis
Test 6 Ch 28-29: Nervous & Senses Test 3 Ch 34,36 & 37: Ecology
Test 4 - Chapters 8-10
DNA to Proteins
Test 4 Ch 25-26: Excretory & Endocrine & Reproductive Systems Test 4 (Exam)- Ch 38: Conservation & Animal Divesity
Test 5 - Chapters 11-12
Cell Division
Test 6 - Chapters 13-14
Test 7 (Exam) - Chapters 16-17
Objectives for Test 1:  Chapters 1-3
Introduction, Chemistry & Organic Molecules

CHAPTER 1: Invitation to Biology
1. Identify and describe the levels of organization of living things.
2. Describe the relationship between producers and consumers in terms of energy and nutrients.
3. Summarize the key features of all living things.
4. Describe the role of homeostasis as a feature of living things.
5. Define Biodiversity.
6. Distinguish between prokaryotic cells (organisms without a nucleus) and eukaryotic cells.
7. Define Taxonomy and how it is used in the two part scientific name of all living things.
8. Describe the basic characteristics of the three domains.
9. Identify and apply the steps involved in the scientific process.
10. Distinguish between scientific theory and a law of nature.
11. LAB: Scientific Method a. Identify the parts of a good experiment. b. Construct and interpret bar graphs and a line graphs.

CHAPTER 2: Life’s Chemical Basis
1. Identify the elements that make up living things.
2. Describe the makeup of an atom and how it (the makeup) determines the different elements.
3. Describe isotopes and radioisotopes.
4. Describe how electrons are the basis of an atom’s chemical behavior. a. Shell models b. Ion c. Electronegativity d. Molecule e. Compounds
5. Identify the characteristics of chemical bonds. a. ionic bonds b. covalent bonds c. hydrogen bonds.
6. Identify the conditions that create polar and non-polar molecules.
7. Identify the properties of water.
8. Distinguish the molecular differences between an acidic solution and basic solution.
9. Describe how buffers aid in maintaining homeostasis.
10. LAB: pH a. Illustrate and label the pH scale. b. Identify the pH of various solutions. c. Describe the affect of buffers on pH

CHAPTER 3: The Molecules of Life
1. Distinguish between inorganic and organic compounds.
2. Describe the relationship between monomers, polymers and macromolecules.
3. Define metabolism.
4. Compare the process of hydrolysis and condensation (dehydration synthesis).
5. Identify the basic function, characteristics and structure of carbohydrates. · Monomer · Monosaccharides · Polymers · Dissacharides · Polysaccharides
6. Identify the basic function, characteristics and structure of lipids. · Monomers · Fatty Acids (hydrocarbon tail) · Glycerol (functional head) · Polymers · Fats (Triglyceride) · Phospholipids · Waxes · Steroids
7. Identify the basic function, characteristics and structure of proteins. · Monomer · Amino Acids · Polymer (peptide bonds) · Primary Structure · Secondary structure · Tertiary structure · Quaternary structure · Identify the importance of a proteins shape.
8. Identify the basic function, characteristics and structure of nucleic acids. · Monomer · Nucleotides · ATP · Polymers · RNA · DNA
9. LAB: Molecules of Life · Identify the chemical tests for common organic compounds? · Identify the organic compounds found in common foods.

Know the bold terms from the textbook!

Objectives for Chapters 4 & 5:
Cells & Membranes
(updated on 9-23-11)

CHAPTER 4:  A Tour of the Cell

  1. Identify the traits common to all cells.
  2. Explain the constraints of surface-to-volume ratio on cell size.
  3. State the history of the study of cells and the development of the cell theory (including the people involved).
  4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a light microscope verses the different kinds of electron microscopes (TEM & SEM)
  5. Describe the fluid mosaic model as it relates to the structure and function of the cell membrane.
  6. Describe the various functions of proteins in the cell membrane. a. Passive transporters b. Active transporters c. Receptors d. Adhesion proteins e. Recognition proteins f. Enzyme
  7. Identify the basic structure of a prokaryotic cell.
  8. Identify the basic structure, function and interaction of organelles of a eukaryotic cell: Ribosomes, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Nuclear envelope, Nuclear pore, Endomembrane System, Rough Endoplasmic reticulum, Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies (apparatus), Vesicles, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Cytoskeleton
  9. Identify the structure of a cell wall and the importance of the extracellular matrix to some organisms.
  10. Distinguish between the cellular structures of plant cells and animal cells.
  11. Be able to trace the pathway of the production of a protein to outside the cell (leaving by exocytosis)
  12. Know the diagram in your textbook on p. 70
  13. Know the
  14. LAB: Microscopes a. Microscope parts/functions b. Measurement c. Correct sketching & labeling techniques
  15. LAB: Cell Structure a. Recognition of various plant cells and animal cells.
  16. LAB: Cell size - Why are cells so small (surface area to volume ratio).

CHAPTER 5: The Working Cell (5.10-5.19)

  1. Describe the relationship between kinetic energy, potential energy & thermodynamics (first and second laws).
  2. Understand the relationship between reaction, reactants and products.
  3. Identify the role of activation energy in reactions.
  4. Compare endergonic and exergonic reactions to the ATP-ADP cycle.
  5. Identify the mechanisms by which enzymes act as catalysts.
  6. Identify how enzymes can be denatured.
  7. Describe the role of cofactors and coenzymes in enzymatic activity.
  8. Understand the process of diffusion and the factors that influence the rate of diffusion across a membrane.
  9. Describe how cells maintain water homeostasis. (hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic).
  10. Define and describe the relationship between; osmosis, turgor, osmotic pressure and tonicity.
  11. Distinguish between passive and active transport and how they are accomplished by cells
  12. Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis. a. phagocytosis
  13. LAB: Enzymes a. Describe the relationship between enzyme, substrate and active site. b. Relate the terms from the previous objective to hydrogen peroxide and liver. c. Identify the characteristics of enzymes. Know how to calculate the rate of reaction.
  14. LAB: Osmosis & Diffusion a. Examples (starch, glucose, iodine)


Objectives for Chapter 6 & 7:
Respiration & Photosynthesis

Chapter 6:  How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

  1. State the overall balanced equation for cellular respiration.
  2. Identify the redox reaction in cellular respiration.
  3. Describe the general structure of the mitochondria.
  4. Describe Glycolysis (where & why).
    • What goes into Glycolysis and what do you get out of it?
  5. Describe the Citric Acid Cycle (where & why).
    • What goes into Citric Acid Cycle and what do you get out of it?
  6. Describe oxidative phosphorylation (where & why).
    • What goes into oxidative phosphorylation  and what do you get out of it?
      • What happens during the electron transport chain?
      • What happens during chemiosmosis?
  7. Compare anaerobic cellular respiration and aerobic cellular respiration.
    • What is the end result of lactic acid fermentation and where would it take place?
    • What is the end result of alcohol fermentation and where would it take place?
    • What is the difference between a strict anaerobe and a facultative anaerobe?
  8. LAB:  Fermentation
    • What is the equation for alcohol fermentation?
    • How can we test for rate of fermentation?

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food

  1. Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs.
  2. State the overall balanced equation for Photosynthesis?
  3. Identify the redox reaction in photosynthesis
  4. Describe the structure of a chloroplast?
  5. Identify what colors of light are absorbed by various pigments in plants.
  6. Describe where & when the light reaction occurs.
    • How are electron transport and chemiosmosis involved?
    • What goes into the light reaction, and what do you get out of it?
  7. Describe where and when the Calvin Cycle occurs.
    • What goes into the Calvin Cycle, and what do you get out of it?
  8. Identify the relationship between the light reaction and the Calvin Cycle.
  9. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
  10. Compare oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.
  11. Describe differences between photorespiration and photosynthesis.
  12. Compare and contrast C3, C4 and CAM plants.
  13. Compare and contrast the overall processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
  14. LAB: Leaf Chromatography
    • How can leaf chromatography be used to identify major pigments found in a leaf?
    • What are some of the major pigments found in a leaf?
  15. LAB: Leaf Anatomy
    • What are the parts of a leaf, and what is their role in photosynthesis?
  16. LAB: Rate of Photosynthesis
    • What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?
    • How can we measure rate of photosynthesis

Main Vocabulary for Chapters 6 & 7

for a set of online flashcards go to: Quizlet
password is: bioach
note that this site does not contain all of the words found below!

equation for cellular respiration, equation for photosynthesis, redox reaction, oxidation, reduction, dehydrogenase, NAD+, NADH, electron transport chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle (aka Krebs cycle), oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, chemiosmosis, FADH2, ATP synthase, pyruvate, ATP, Coenzyme A, Acetyl CoA, mitochondria structure, intermembrane space, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, cristae, ATP yield with NADH, ATP yield with FADH2, why oxygen?, fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, strict anaerobes, facultative anaerobe, use of fats or proteins as fuel, food from photosynthesis, autotrophs, producers, photoautotrophs, mesophyll, palisade cells, spongy cell layer, guard cells, stoma (pl. stomata), cuticle, epidermis, xylem, phloem, vascular bundle (vein), chloroplast, stroma, granum, thylakoid, thylakoid space, intermembrane space, inner membrane, outer membrane, where does oxygen come from?, light reactions, dark reactions, Calvin cycle, NADP+, NADPH, carbon fixation, light wavelengths, chlorophyll, photon energy, electron transport chain, photosystem 1, photosystem 2, chemiosmosis, G3P, ribulose biphosphate, rubisco, carbon fixation, C3 plants, photorespiration, C4 plants, CAM plants

Rate of photosynthesis, Leaf structure of a Dicot leaf and how it relates to photosynthesis, understand a pyramid of energy (lecture), transfer of energy between trophic levels (lecture), yeast fermentation, know how to calculate reaction rates!!

Objectives Chapters 8-10:
DNA to Proteins
(updated 10-24-11)

Chapter 8:  DNA Structure and Function

1. Describe how the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is organized as one or more chromosomes.
2. Identify the human chromosome number.
3. Distinguish between autosomal chromosomes and sex chromosomes.
4. Use a karyotype to determine an organisms sex and chromosome number.
5. Identify the scientists who contributed “pieces of the genetic puzzle”, and the basic information they discovered (Mendel, Griffith, Avery, Hershey, Chase, Chargaff, Wilkins, Franklin, Crick, Watson, Nirenberg).
6. Explain the experiments conducted by Griffith and Avery, and the information they discovered.
7. Describe the structure of DNA as identified by Watson and Crick.
8. Identify the parts/structure of a DNA nucleotide.
9. Discuss the process of DNA Replication a. Where and why it takes place. b. Enzymes involved and their role. c. Proofreading.
10. Identify the benefits and process of reproductive cloning. a. Somatic cell nuclear transfer b. Therapeutic cloning
11. LAB: DNA Structure

Chapter 9: From DNA to Protein
1. Identify the parts of an RNA nucleotide and the overall structure of RNA.
2. Discuss the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein (gene expression / protein synthesis).
3. Describe the process of Transcription and its role in gene expression. a. Identify the role of each of the following in the process of transcription. i. promoter ii. RNA Polymerase iii. mRNA iv. Introns and Exons v. Alternative splicing
4. Describe the difference between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA; and their roles in gene expression (protein synthesis).
5. Describe the process of Translation and its role in gene expression. i. Initiation ii. Elongation iii. Termination
6. Describe several ways in which mutations occur and their general affect on the code. a. Base pair substitution b. Insertion c. Deletion

Chapter 10: Controls Over Genes
1. Define differentiation.
2. Describe how bacteria control gene expression of the lac operon. a. Operon b. Operators c. Repressor protein

Chapter 15: Biotechnology
1. Define recombinant DNA.
2. Describe how a restriction enzyme works.
3. Describe the role of sticky ends.
4. Recognize how plasmids can be used as cloning vectors.
5. Understand the process of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
6. Describe how electrophoresis separates DNA fragments.
7. Describe what a genetically modified organism (GMO) is and how they are produced.
8. LAB: Electrophoresis

Objectives for Chapters 11-12
Cell Division
(updated on 11/07/11)

Chapters 11-12:  The Cellular Basis of Reproduction & Inheritance

  1. Compare sexual and asexual reproduction.
  2. Describe asexual reproduction in prokaryotes.
  3. Describe the relationship between DNA, gene, chromatin, sister chromatids, chromosome.
  4. Identify the different stages of the cell cycle.
  5. Describe what takes place during each stage of Interphase.
    • Identify the uniqueness of G0.
    • G1
    • S
    • G2
  6. Describe what takes during each phase of Mitosis.
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  7. Compare cytokinesis in plant and animal cells.
  8. Identify the cell cycle checkpoints.
  9. LAB: Determining the time needed for completion of Interphase and each stage of Mitosis.
  10. Identify (in pictures) the different phases of the cell cycle.
  11. Understand how the time needed for Mitosis is calculated/determined.
  12. Identify the advantages of sexual reproduction ... Why Sex?
  13. Describe the relationship between the following terms;
  14. Diploid and Haploid
  15. Gonads and Gametes
  16. Somatic cells and Sex cells
  17. Autosomal chromosomes and Sex chromosomes
  18. Chromatin and Chromosomes
  19. Chromatids and Chromosomes
  20. Chromosomes and Homologous Chromosomes
  21. Discuss the function of Meiosis (why we need it).
  22. Identify the phases of Meiosis.
    1. Meiosis I and Meiosis II
  23. Describe the phases of Meiosis.
    1. Meiosis I and Meiosis II
  24. Identify when and where Meiosis occurs.
  25. Compare and contrast oogenesis and spermatogenesis.
  26. Describe independent assortment and its impact on gametes.
  27. Describe crossing over and its impact on gametes.
  28. Identify several abnormalities caused by nondisjunction.
  29. Describe how a Karyotype is made and what its purpose is.
  30. Interpret a karyotype.
  31. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

Main Vocabulary

sexual reproduction, fertilization, life cycle, asexual reproduction, chromosomes, cell division, binary fission, chromotin, chromatid, centromere, homologous chromosomes, cell cycle, interphase, G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, mitosis, cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, centrosomes, mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, cell plate, growth factors, cell cycle control system, G1 checkpoint, G2 checkpoint, M checkpoint, somatic cell, homologous chromosomes, locus, sex chromosomes, autosomes, dipoid condition, haploid condition, gametes, zygote, meiosis, meiosis I, meiosis II, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, compare mitosis & meiosis, independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over, tetrad, the variation in offspring, different versions of genes, genetic recombination, karyotype, trisomy 21, Down syndrome, nondisjunction, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation

Be able to identify different stages of mitosis in onion root cells, Be able to identify different stages of mitosis or meiosis by looking at sketches of the cell division process

Objectives for Chapter 10, 11 & 12:
DNA, Protein Synthesis, & Biotechnology

Chapter 9:  Patterns of Inheritance

  1. Describe Mendel’s Experiment.
    • Explain the advantages of using pea plants in the experiments.
    • Define and distinguish among true-breeding organisms, hybrids, the P generation, the F1 generation, and the F2 generation.
  2. Explain and apply Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance based on his observation of pea plants.
  3. Define and distinguish between the following pairs of terms: 
    • genotype & phenotype
    • dominant allele & recessive allele
    • heterozygous & homozygous
    • monohybrid cross & dihybrid cross.
  4. Explain how a testcross is performed to determine the genotype of an organism.
  5. Describe the inheritance patterns of (be able to make & interpret Punnett squares) of each of the following;
    • Dominance (monohybrid & dihybrid)
    • Incomplete Dominance
    • Co-Dominance
    • Multiple Alleles
  6. Explain how blood typing is an example of an exception to Mendel’s Laws.
  7. Describe each of the blood types, phenotypically and genotypically.
  8. Distinguish between autosomal inheritance and sex-linked inheritance.
  9. Describe various conditions that effect gene expression.
  10. LAB: Probability
    • Explain and apply percent deviation to probability.
    • Explain and apply the product rule to probability.
    • Explain and apply the Chi-square statistical method.
    • Explain and apply null hypothesis to the Chi-square statistical method.
  11. LAB: Corn Dihybrid Cross
  12. LAB: Pedigree Analysis
    • Explain how family pedigrees can help determine the inheritance of many human traits.
    • Explain how recessive and dominant disorders are inherited (autosomal and sex-linked).
    • Create a pedigree based on given family phenotypes

Main Vocabulary for Chapters 9

Gregor Mendel, self-fertilization, cross-fertilization, true-breeding, carpel (a.k.a. pistil), stamen, hybrid, cross, P generation, F1 generation, F2 generation, monohybrid cross, allele, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant allele, recessive allele, law of segregation, Punnett square, phenotype, genotype, homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, dihybrid cross, law of independent assortment, test cross, probability, pedigree chart, symbols of the pedigree chart, carrier, cystic fibrosis, inbreeding, achondroplasia, Huntington's disease, albinism, Sickle-cell disease, complete dominance, incomplete dominance, ABO blood groups, environmental factors and phenotypes, chromosome theory of inheritance, sex chromosomes, autosome, sex-linked genes, red-green color blindness, hemophilia,

Mendel's Theory of Inheritance (4 hypotheses on p. 156), Know how to use Punnett squares (both monohybrid crosses and dihibrid crosses), Know how to perform a test cross, Know your probability lab, Know how to perform Chi-Square tests, know how to use a pedigree chart, know the blood types lab

Objectives for Chapters 16-17: 
Evolution & the Origin of Species

1. Define evolution.
2. Identify the role of Aristotle, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Lyell, Thomas Malthus and Alfred Wallace on the development of a theory of evolution by Charles Darwin.
3. Describe each of the following as it relates to Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection. a. HMS Beagle b. The Origin of Species c. Galapagos Islands
4. Identify the major points of Natural Selection.
5. Describe evolutionary fitness.
6. Identify the 5 lines of evidence for Evolution a. Fossils b. Biogeographical c. Comparative Anatomy i. Homologous structures vs. analogous structures (what about vestigial structures?). ii. Morphological divergence vs morphological convergece d. Comparative Embryological e. Molecular/Biochemical
7. LAB: Wooly Worms a. Apply the concepts of natural selection to wooly worms and other populations
8. LAB: Analyzing evolutionary relationships a. Describe how biochemistry (Nutall agglutination technique) can aid in identifying evolutionary relationships among organisms.
9. BLAST to the Ancient Past: Cladograms & Taxonomy a. Describe how biochemical evidence (protein comparison) can aid in identifying evolutionary relationships among organisms. b. Describe how cladograms are used to show evolutionary relationships.

Chapter 17: Processes of Evolution
1. Identify various sources of variation among individuals in a population that serve as the raw material for evolution.
2. Describe the relationship between gene pool and allele frequency.
3. Describe the 5 major mechanisms for evolution. a. Natural Selection b. Mutations c. Genetic Drift d. Gene Flow e. Non-Random Mating
4. Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine allele and genotype frequencies in a population.
5. Describe and distinguish between the three patterns of selection in a population. a. Directional selection b. Stabilizing selection c. Disruptive selection
6. Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution.
7. Define speciation.
8. Identify the major types of isolation that could lead to speciation. a. Geographic (allopatric) b. Habitat (parapatricl) c. Behavioral d. Temporal e. Gamete Incompatabilityf. Reproductive (mechanical)
9. Describe each of the following patterns of macroevolution a. Divergent b. Convergent c. Parallel d. Coevolution e. Adaptive Radiation f. Extinction g. Gradualism h. Punctuated Equilibrium
10. LAB: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium a. Apply the equations and concepts of the Hardy-Weinberg Equiilibrium. b. Describe the assumptions that must be made to apply the Hardy-Weinberg Theory.
11, Distinguish between the following  terms as they relate to population genetics. Population, Species, Gene pool, Genetic drift, Gene flow, Gene (allele) frequency

The remainder of chapter 17 will be on the final, but not the chapter test!
11. Describe each of the following as it relates to phylogeny. a. Cladistics b. Cladogram c. Clade d. Evolutionary trees
12. Describe the basic key characteristics of Animal classification.
Correctly write a scientific name using binomial nomenclature.




The remainder of chapter 17 will be on the final, but not the chapter test!
11. Describe each of the following as it relates to phylogeny. a. Cladistics b. Cladogram c. Clade d. Evolutionary trees
12. Describe the basic key characteristics of Animal classification.
Correctly write a scientific name using binomial nomenclature.

Previous Year's Essay Questions

1. Name two types (categories) of organic molecules. Describe their monomers and their polymers. Describe two functions these molecules have in a typical cell. Describe how polymers are put together and torn apart into monomers.

2. Cell membranes regulate what enters and exits cells. Describe the structure of a cell membrane, how the structure of the cell membrane regulates what enters and exits cells, what types of molecules can pass freely through the cell membrane and why, and two different ways molecules that cannot freely pass through the membrane enter cells.

3. ATP is an extremely important energy molecule in all cells. Describe the structure of ATP and two processes that require ATP. Explain how ATP is produced in EITHER Photosynthesis OR Cellular Respiration.

4. Enzymes regulate all metabolic reactions in cells. Discuss the relationship between an enzyme’s structure and its function. Discuss the function of enzymes in relationship with activation energies. Describe the effect of changing temperature OR pH will have on an enzyme’s function.

5. One of the reasons meiosis and sexual reproduction evolved was to create variation among offspring. Discuss how both meiosis and sexual reproduction can create this variation. Also explain why it is meiosis not mitosis that produces variation in offspring.

6. Genes carry the hereditary information of cells. Describe the process of transcription (copying a gene into a mRNA molecule) and translation (creating a protein from the mRNA molecule).

7. Evolution is one of the major unifying themes of modern biology.
7a. Explain the mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change.
7b. Describe how scientists use each of the following as evidence for evolution.
• Selective breeding of domesticated animals (i.e. dogs).
• Comparative biochemistry.
• The fossil record.

8. Design an experiment to answer the question: What is the effect of the type of simple sugar (monosaccharides) on the rate of yeast fermentation? Why and how do cells undergo fermentation?


Objectives for Chapters 28 - 30
Updated 1/17/12

Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

Chapter 28: Animal Tissue and Organ Systems
1. Describe the relationship between extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, and plasma.
2. Understand the basic forms and functions of epithelium tissue and examples of each. a. Simple squamous epithelium b. Simple cuboidal epithelium c. Simple columnar epithelium d. Stratified squamous epithelium e. Stratified columnar epithelium
3. Understand the basic forms and functions of connective tissue and examples of each. a. Loose connective tissue b. Dense, regular connective tissue c. Cartilage d. Adipose e. Bone f. Blood
4. Understand the role of muscle tissue and the three major forms of muscle tissue. a. Skeletal b. Cardiac c. Smooth
5. Recognize the role of nervous tissue in the body.
6. Describe how the body maintains homeostasis.
7. Describe the relationship between structure and function.

Chapter 29: Neural Control
1. Distinguish between the three types of neurons.
2. Describe the basic divisions of the nervous system. a. Central nervous system b. Peripheral nervous system
3. Describe the structure and function of a neuron.
4. Describe the concept of membrane potentials, including; a. Action potentials b. Resting membrane potentials
5. Identify how the following terms/concepts apply to action potential; a. Threshold b. All or nothing
6. Describe propagation of an action potential (with and without myelin sheath).
7. Describe how an action potential crosses the synapse.
8. Describe the effect of several neurotransmitters. a. Acetylcholine b. GABA c. Dopamine d. Serotonin e. Glutamate
9. Describe synaptic integration.
10. Identify the role of the Peripheral nervous system a. Autonomic nerves i. Sympathetic division ii. Parasympathetic division b. Somatic nerves
11. Distinguish between white and gray matter.
12. Describe the pathway of a reflex.
13. Describe the structure and function of the blood brain barrier.
14. Identify the location and general function of each of the major areas of the brain (human and sheep).
15. Identify the purpose and parts of the limbic system.

Chapter 30: Sensory Perception
1. List the five kinds of receptors and identify the type of stimulus energy that each type detects.
2. Define visual accommodation.
3. Distinguish between rods and cones.
4. Distinguish between eye shape and focusing in nearsightedness and farsightedness.
5. Explain the process by which the body assesses balance.
6. Describe the structure and function of the human ear.
7. LAB: Eye dissection (anatomy) a. Identify the structures of the human eye and give their function.


Objectives for Chapters 31-32
Updated January 30, 2012

Chapter 31: Endocrine Control
1. Describe how the endocrine system uses chemical signals to regulate body activities. How are is the endocrine system different from the nervous system?
2. Compare the three types of hormone producing cells in the body.
3. Identify the major glands of the endocrine system.
4. Identify the major hormones of the endocrine system. (Refer to the notes to know which hormones you are responsible for.)
5. Compare the signaling mechanisms of peptide (amino acid) based hormones and steroid hormones. a. Signal reception b. Signal Transduction
7. Describe the relationship between the hypothalamus and the anterior and posterior pituitary.
8. Identify the feedback mechanism involved in maintaining homeostasis of calcium in the blood.
9. Identify the feedback mechanism involved in maintaining homeostasis of insulin in the blood. a. Describe diabetes and its relationship with insulin.
10. Describe how an ELISA test can be used to determine if someone is pregnant.

Chapter 32: Structural Support and Movement Skeletal System
1. Compare and contrast hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons and endoskeletons.
2. Identify various bones of the human skeleton.
3. Describe the various types of joints and identify examples of each.
4. Describe the structure and function of bone. a. Compact bone vs. spongy bone (cancellous bone) b. Osteocytes c. Red marrow and yellow marrow
5. Distinguish between osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
6. Distinguish between ligaments, tendons and cartilage.
7. Identify the structure of the knee joint.
8. LAB: The Skeletal System Muscular System
9. Identify various muscles of the human body and their action.
10. Identify several antagonistic muscle groups and their actions.
11. Identify the three types of muscle tissue.
12. Identify the structure of muscle. a. Muscle fiber, myofibril, sarcomere
13. Identify the parts of a sarcomere. a. Actin, myosin, myosin heads, Z lines (bands), H zone, A band, I band
14. Describe the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction.
15. Describe the affect of a motor neuron on a muscle fiber. a. Actylcholine, sarcoplasmic reticulum, ATP, Calcium
16. Identify how a muscle can exert more or less force.
17. Distinguish between the types of muscle fibers. a. Fast vs. Slow
18. LAB: The Muscular System
19. LAB: Muscle Fatigue

Objectives for Chapter 28 & 29: 
Nervous System

Chapter 28: Nervous System
Nerve Signals and Their Transmission

  1. Identify the sequence of neurons from sensory receptor to effector cells.
  2. Describe how the neuron pathway differs between conscious thought and a reflex.
  3. Identify the structure of a neuron.
  4. Describe how a neuron maintains its resting potential.
  5. Describe how a resting potential changes to action potential.
  6. Describe the changes in membrane potential (mV) during an action potential.
  7. Describe propagation of the action potential along an axon.
  8. Identify how an impulse travels across a synapse.
  9. Describe the effect of inhibitory synaptic terminals and excitatory synaptic terminals. (not responsible for this objective)
  10. Identify the role of a neurotransmitter and several types of neurotransmitters.

Animal Nervous Systems

  1. Describe the general structure of the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates.
  2. Describe how the brain protects itself.
  3. Compare the functions of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
  4. Compare the structures, functions, and interrelationships of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric divisions of the peripheral nervous system. 
  5. Describe the Limbic system and how it related to Phineas Gage (if we don’t get to this DVD, you just need to understand what the limbic system is).

The Human Brain

  1. Describe the parts and functions of the human brain. 
  2. Describe the detailed structures and functions of the cerebral cortex.
  3. LAB: Trial & Error (if we don’t get to this lab, it will not be on the test)
    • Describe associative learning.
    • Compare classical and operant conditioning.

Chapter 29: The Senses
Sensory Reception

  1. Describe the basic structure and function of the vertebrate eye.
  2. Describe how an eye focuses on an object.
  3. Distinguish between the function of rods and cones.
  4. Distinguish between hyperopia and myopia.
  5. Identify the basic anatomy of the ear.
  6. Identify the basics of how you hear sounds.
  7. Describe how the ear functions in balance.
  8. LAB: Eye dissection (anatomy)
  9. LAB: Various eye tests (know what is going on with the eye)
    • Astigmatism
    • Blind spot
    • Accomodation reflex
  10. Article: "Birds see color better WU researchers find"


Main Vocabulary for Chapters 28 & 29

nervous system, neuron, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, nerve, ganglia, sensory input, integration, motor output, effector cells, reflexes, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, knee-jerk reflex (figure 281B), cell body, dendrites, axon, glia, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, synaptic terminal, synapse, know figure 28.2), membrane potential, resting potential (how is it generated?), sodium-potassium pumps, stimulus, action potential, threshold, voltage-gated channels, Na+ channels, K+ channels, know figure 28.4, how does an action potential move along the axon? and why in only one direction?, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter, synaptic vesicles, know figure 28.6, excitatory neurotransmitters vs. inhibitory neurotransmitters, acetylcholine, GABA, nerve net, cephalization, spinal cord, brain, blood-brain barrier, ventricles, cerbrospinal fluid, meninges, white matter, gray matter, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, enteric nervous system, medulla oblongata, pons, brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, biological clock, corpus callosum, know figure 28.15A, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, know figure 28.16, limbic system, hippocampus

photoreceptors, know figure 29.5, sclera, cornea, choroid, iris, pupil, lens, retina, fovea, blind spot, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, know figure 29.6, accommodation, know figure 29.6, rods, cones, know figures 29.9a & 29.9B, outer ear, pinna, auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, Eustachian tube, inner ear, cochlea, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, semicircular canals

nervous system control of muscle contraction, motor unit, neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine, acetylcholine receptors, acetylcholinesterase, Ca++ in the modified ER, voltage-sensitive calcium channels
Objectives for Chapters 25, 26 & 27:
Regulation (Excretion & Endocrine System) & Reproduction

ELISA Lab: HIV/AIDS Simulation

  1. Identify what HIV is and what it attacks.
  2. Describe the basics of what an ELISA test is and how it works

Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment

  1. Define homeostasis as it relates to thermoregulation, osmoregulation and excretion in humans.
  2. Identify several ways in which thermoregulation can occur.
    • Distinguish between ectotherms and endotherms.
  3. Compare the nitrogenous waste of fish, mammals and birds.
  4. Describe the role of the liver in the excretory process.
  5. Identify the structures of the excretory system.
  6. Identify the structures of the nephron.
  7. Describe the process of filtration, reabsorption and secretion in humans.
  8. Identify the contents of normal urine and compare that with urine of an individual with diabetes or nephritis.
  9. Identify the affects of ADH, caffeine and alcohol on the excretory process.
  10. LAB:  Urinalysis
    • How the tests were conducted.
    • Urine results for normal, diabetes, kidney infection, and trauma to the kidney.

Chapter 26: Chemical Regulation

  1. Describe how the endocrine system uses chemical  signals to regulate body activities.
  2. Compare endocrine hormones and neurosecretory hormones.
  3. Compare the signaling mechanisms of amino acid based hormones and steroid hormones.
  4. Identify the major glands of the endocrine system.
  5. Identify the major hormones of the endocrine system. (Refer to the review sheet to know which hormones you are responsible for.)
  6. Describe the relationship between the hypothalamus and the anterior and posterior pituitary.
  7. Identify the feedback mechanism involved in maintaining homeostasis of calcium in the blood.
  8. Identify the feedback mechanism involved in maintaining homeostasis of insulin in the blood.
  9. Describe green fluorescent protein (GFP).
  10. LAB:  Describe the use of Recombinant DNA technology in the production of Insulin.
    • Identify how each of the following is important in Recombinant DNA technology;
      • Electrophoresis gels
      • Restriction enzymes
      • Ligase
      • Plasmid
      • Transformation

TEST Hints!!!

      • Homeostasis and hormonal control are based on negative feedback.  Make sure you can construct negative feedback loops for control of items such as water, glucose & calcium.
      • It’s helpful to do the TYK…..answers are on line.

Chapter 27:  Reproduction & Embryonic Development
 Asexual & Sexual Reproduction (This is not a major portion of this chapter.)

    1. Compare the advantages, and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
    2. Describe various different types of asexual reproduction.
    3. Distinguish between internal and external fertilization.
    4. Identify characteristics of a hermaphrodite.

Human Reproduction

    1. Describe the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the female reproductive system.
    2. Describe the events of the menstrual cycle.
    3. Compare the events of the menstrual cycle to the events of the ovarian cycle.
    4. Identify the hormones involved in controlling the menstrual (uterine) and ovarian cycles.
    5. Describe the structure and function of the male reproductive system.
    6. Describe the hormonal control of the testis.
    7. Describe the structure of a human sperm and egg.
    8. Compare human spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Embryonic Development
    1. Describe the process and result of cleavage.
    2. Describe the process and result of gastrulation.
    3. Distinguish between the 3 layers of the embryo and the organs/structures that rise from them.
    4. Identify various stages and structures of an embryo.

Human Development

    1. Identify the human fetal membranes.

The remainder of objectives will NOT be on the test.

    1. VIDEO: In the Womb (The following objectives are based on notes taken during the video.)
        • Identify human embryology during the first 9 weeks
        • Identify basic developments during the second trimester of pregnancy.
        • Identify basic developments during the third trimester of pregnancy.
        • Describe the basics of labor and delivery.

I strongly suggest that you look at some of the Bio Ach Links.  The review of the Ovarian and Uterine cycles may be particularly helpful! Binder 156 might also serve as a good review of spermatogenesis versus oogenesis

Main Vocabulary for Chapters 25, 26, & 27

thermoregulation, endotherm, ectotherm, hibernation, dormancy, thermal exchange with the environment (conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation), internal thermoregulation (metabolism, insulation, circulatory adaptations, evaporative cooling, behavioral responses), ammonia, urea, uric acid, functions of the liver, know figure 25.9, know the production of urine and the flow out, filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion, process of filtering blood to production of urine, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), dialysis, how to perform urinalysis, dialysis

hormone, endocrine glands, endocrine system, target cells, local regulators, pheromones, neurosecretory cells, neurotransmitter, amino acid hormones, steroid hormones, water- and lipid-soluble hormones, know figures 26.2A and 26.2B, know figure 26.3, TABLE 26.3 (especially oxytocin, ADH, GH, TSH, ACTH, melatonin, thyroxine, calcitonin, PTH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, insulin, glucagon, androgens), hypothalamus, pituitary gland, differences between the posterior and anterior pituitary glands, releasing hormones, inhibiting hormones, know Figures 26.4B and 26.4C, grave's disease, know how the thyroid gland regulates development and metabolism, hyperthyroidism, goiter (and how to prevent it), thyroid and parathyroid and calcium homeostasis (know figure 26.6), antagonistic hormones, know how the pancreas controls glucose homeostasis (know figure 26.7), Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, why would diabetics have glucose in their urine?, adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex and the response to stress, short-term and long-term stress responses, "fight-or-flight" response, corticoisteroids (corisol), gonads and sex hormones, androgens, estrogen, testosterone

uses of GFP, restriction enzymes, plasmid, transformation, ligase, electrophoresis gel, how to insert a gene of interest into a plasmid, importance of antibiotic resistance genes in a plasmid

reproduction, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, budding, fragmentation, regeneration, gamete, zygote, sperm, egg, ovum, hermaphroditism, parthenogenesis, external fertilization, internal fertilization, copulation, know figures 27.2A & 27.2C, ovaries, follicles, ovulation, corpus luteum, oviduct (aka fallopian tube), uterus, endometrium, vagina, cervix, embryo, fetus, labia minora, labia majora, hymen, Bartholin's gland, clitoris, testes, scrotum, epididymis, ejaculation, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, semen composition, penis, erectile tissue, know figures 27.3A & 27.3B, hormonal control of the testis, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, spermatogenesis, seminiferous tubules, oogenesis, polar bodies, ovum, know figure 27.4C, hormonal control of the ovary, ovarian cycle, menstrual cycle, menstruation, know figure 27.5, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, feedback of estrogen (neg & pos), fertilization, acrosome, know figure 27.9B, know figure 27.9C, fertilization envelope, zygote, cleavage, embryo, morula, blastula, blastocoel, blastopore, gastrula, archenteron, ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, yolk plug, notochord, neural tube, gestation, blastocyst, trophoblast (outer cell mass), inner cell mass, placenta, extraembryonic membranes, amnion, chorion, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), chorionic villi, fetus, labor, positive feedback of oxytocin and prostaglandins for childbirth

Objectives for Chapters 18-21.5:
Origin of Life & the Evolution of the Kingdoms
(updated on 4/12/12)

The Origin & Evolution of Microbial Life

  1. Identify the estimated age of the earth and its conditions in the beginning.
  2. Describe the Big Bang Theory.
  3. Describe the Miller, Urey experiment, why it was good and why it was questionable.
  4. Describe each of the following in relationship to the sequence; organic monomer --> organic polymer-->  cell.
    • Miller/Urey experiment
    • Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents
    • Meteorites
    • Clay
    • RNA World
    • Molecular cooperation
    • Protobiants
  5. Identify the organism that is thought to be the 1st prokaryotic cell.
  6. Describe the impact oxygen had on life on earth.
  7. Place important events in the evolution of life in chronological order.

Prokaryotes and Protists

  1. Identify characteristics of eubacteria.
  2. Identify the three basic shapes and arrangements by which bacteria are described/classified.
  3. Compare/contrast the four nutritional modes bacteria use.
  4. Describe the basic structure of a bacteria
  5. Archae

      • Identify characteristics of archae.
      • Identify several examples of archae.


      • Identify the role of membrane infolding and endosymbiosis  in the evolution of eukaryotic organisms.
      • Identify what places an organism in the kingdom protista.
      • Identify characteristics of protists.
      • dentify examples of algae and protozoans and the basis of their classification (especially those used in class)
      • Identify how algae are classified.
      • Identify examples and uses of various algae.
      • Identify several examples of protozoans and how they are classified.

Chapter 17: Plants, Fungi, and the Colonization of Land Plants

  • Describe the adaptations plants have for life on land.
  • Describe the evolutionary history of plants.
  • Describe alternation of generations in plants.
    • MOSS
      • Describe the characteristics of mosses.
      • Identify the stages in the life cycle of mosses.
    • FERNS
      • Describe the characteristics of ferns.
      • Identify the stages in the life cycle of ferns.
      • Describe the characteristics of conifers.
      • Describe the characteristics of angiosperms.
    • FUNGI
      • Describe the characteristics of fungi.
      • Identify how fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual life cycles.
      • Identify characteristics and examples of each of the four groups of fungi.


  1. Identify why a virus is not considered living.
  2. Describe the basic structure of a virus.
  3. Distinguish between the lytic and lysogenic cycle of virus replication.
  4. Describe the characteristics of HIV
  5. Describe how a viroid differs from a virus


Objectives for Chapters 31, 32, & 33:
Plant Structure & Function

Plant Structure, Reproduction and Development

  1. Identify the basic body plan of a flowering plant.
  2. Distinguish between the three types of Angiosperms (annuals, perennials and biennials).
  3. Identify the relationship between ovary and fruit (including several types of fruit).
  4. Identify characteristics of the two main groups of angiosperms.
  5. Compare roots, stem & leaf structure of monocots and dicots.
    • Structure of Xylem & Phloem
  6. Compare monocot seeds and dicot seeds.
  7. Describe germination.
  8. Describe how primary growth lengthens roots and shoots.
  9. Describe how secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants.
  10. LAB: Angiosperm Reproduction
  11. Label a diagram of the life cycle of an angiosperm including; a. flower, fruits and seeds; b. identify the gametophytes and sporophyte generations; c. indicate which structures and phases are haploid and diploid.
  12. Explain why angiosperms have double fertilization.
  13. Give examples of how flowers and their pollinators have coevolved together.
  14. Describe the formation of fruits.

Plant Nutrition & Transport

  1. Identify the nutrients transported through the vascular tissue.
  2. Describe the structure and function of xylem tissue.
  3. Describe the structure and function of phloem tissue.
  4. Describe the process of transpiration.
  5. Describe the affects of guard cells on transpiration.
  6. Describe the pressure flow mechanism hypothesis.
  7. Identify the essential nutrients for plant growth.
  8. Describe the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
  9. LAB: Transport in Roots & Stems (carrot)
  10. LAB: Number of Stomata
  11. LAB: Drey Land Soil Tests
    • Components of soil and function.
  12. LAB: Plant Nutrients
  13. LAB: Drey Land Forest Techniques (know that they exist, you do not need to know how to perform each test)

Chapter 33: Control Systems in Plants

  1. Describe several experiments that lead to our understanding of phototropism.
  2. Describe the affects of  several hormones on plant growth and development.  (auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid ABA,  ethylene)
  3. Identify the affect of various tropisms on plant growth.
  4. Describe Circadian Rhythm and what controls it.
  5. Identify the effect of photo-, gravi- and thigmo- tropism on plant growth.
  6. Explain the mechanism for how phototropism and gravitropism work.
  7. Compare short day plants and long day plants.
  8. Describe experiments that discovered photoperiodism is controlled mainly by the length of the night rather than the length of the day. Phytochrome Red and Far Red



Objectives for Chapters 34, 36, & 37:

Chapter 34: The Biosphere:  An Introduction to Earth’s Diverse Environments

  1. Describe the basic levels of environmental interactions.
  2. Identify biotic and abiotic factors that impact the biosphere.
  3. Describe how biotic and abiotic factors affect tolerance and habitat.
  4. Describe the affect of limiting factors on an ecosystem.
  5. LAB: Biomes
    • Describe & identify each of the biomes.
    • Identify biotic and abiotic factors of each biome. (Most important…precipitation and temperature)

Chapter 36:  Populations Dynamics

  1. Define each of the following components of population ecology.
    • Population Size (how we measure it…think Drey Land)
    • Population density.
    • Dispersion patterns
    • Biotics
    • Abiotics
  2. Describe the exponential growth model (include examples and understanding of the equation).
  3. Describe the logistic growth model (include examples and understanding of the equation).
  4. Define carrying capacity in terms of population.
  5. Compare density dependent limiting factors and density independent limiting factors.
  6. Compare population strategies for population growth (r selected species & k selected species).
  7. Describe the “boom and bust” population cycle.

Chapter 37: Communities & Ecosystems

  1. Define communities and the four properties associated with them.
  2. Describe the role of competition (interspecific and intraspecific), niche and habitat in a community when shared resources are limited.
  3. Describe the relationship between predator and prey.
  4. Define keystone species as it relates to a community.
  5. Define coevolution in respect to two different populations.
  6. Describe the various types of symbiotic relationships and identify examples of each.
  7. Describe the role of ecological succession in a community.
  8. Compare primary succession and secondary succession.
  9. Identify trophic relationships demonstrated by food webs and food chains.
  10. Compare the flow of matter and the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
  11. Identify the pyramid of numbers, pyramid of energy, and pyramid of biomass.

Biogeochemical Cycles

  1. Describe how water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle.
  2. Identify how the carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration.
  3. Describe how the nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria.
  4. Identify how the phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock.
  5. Identify several ways in which humans have impacted the biogeochemical cycles.

Main Vocabulary for Chapters 34, 36, & 37

On-line Flashcards by Quizlet you will have to sign up for access to the site. password is bombers

After signing in to Quizlet click "Find Flashcards" and type in DrDeken

organism, population, community, ecosystem, abiotic, biotic, biosphere, habitat, 3 components of a population, population density, dispersion pattern, clumped or clustered, uniform or even, random, life table, survivorship curves - I, II, III, intrinsic rate of increase, exponential growth, "J-shaped curve", logistic growth, "S-shaped curve", r=BR-DR, G=rN, G=rN((K-N)/K), carrying capacity, biotic potential, reproductive potential, density-dependent regulation, density-independent regulation, boom&bust cycles, r-selection, K-selection, 4 properties of a community, species diversity (biodiversity), species richness vs. relative abundance, trophic structure, interspecific competition, competitive exclusion principle, niche, resource partitioning, predation, predator, prey, Batesian mimicry, Mullerian mimicry, keystone species, herbivores, coevolution, symbiotic relationship, parasitism, pathogen, mutualism, commensalism, disturbances, ecological succession, primary succession, secondary succession, climax community, pioneer species, food chain, producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quaternary consumers, detritivores, decomposers, detritus, decomposition, food web, energy flow, chemical cycling, biomass, primary production, 10% rule, water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, assimilation, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, phosphorus cycle, eutrophication, intertidal zone, pelagic zone, phytoplankton, zooplankton, bentic zone, photic zone, aphotic zone, coral reefs, estuary, wetland, biome, characteristics of: [tropical forest, savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grasslands, temperate forests, taiga or coniferous forests, and tundra], permafrost

Objectives for Chapter 38 & 18:
Conservation Biology & Animal Diversity

    Chapter 38: Conservation Biology

  1. Define Conservation Biology.
  2. Identify why biodiversity is so vital to human welfare.
  3. Describe biodiversity hotspots and endemic species.
  4. Compare the three levels of biodiversity.
  5. Describe the following four main ways in which humans have negatively impacted biodiversity.
    • Habitat destruction
    • Introduction of new species
    • Overexploitation
    • Pollution
  6. Describe the affect of each of the following types of pollution;
    • DDT
    • Acid Rain
    • Ozone Depletion
    • Global Warming
  7. LAB: Human Population
    • Human Population growth
    • Survivorship
    • Semi-log graph

Ch 18: Animal Diversity

  1. Distinguish between the major phyla and classes of animals using the following categories;
    • Symmetry
      • Asymmetrical
      • Radial
      • Bilateral
    • Number of tissue layers
      • No true tissues
      • True tissues
    • Body Cavity
      • No body cavity
      • Pseudocoelom
      • True coelom
    • Embryonic development (those with 3 tissue layers)
      • Protostomes
      • Deuterostomes
    • # of digestive openings
    • Segmentation
    • Skeleton
      • Hydrostatic skeleton
      • Exoskeleton
      • Endoskeleton
    • Jointed appendages
    • Types/# of appendages
    • Type of endoskeleton
    • Type of body covering
    • Characteristics of the egg
  2. Use the above characteristics to distinguish the various phyla and classes using a cladograms.
  3. List several examples of organisms in each of the major animal phyla and classes.

Major Phyla of Kingdom Animalia

  • Porifera
  • Cnidaria
  • Platyhelminthes
  • Nematoda
  • Mollusca
  • Annelida
  • Arthropoda
  • Echinodermata
  • Chordata

Major Classes of Phylum Chordata

  • Chondrichthyes
  • Osteichthyes
  • Amphibia
  • Reptilia
  • Aves
  • Mammalia

Major Classes of Phylum Arthropoda

  • Arachnida
  • Crustacea
  • Insecta

Main Vocabulary for Chapters 38 & 18

biodiversity, ecosystem diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity, endangered species, threatened species, habitat destruction, introduced species, overexploitation, pollution, biological magnification, bioaccumulation, ozone layer, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), global warming, greenhouse gases, flagship species, minimum viable population size, landscape ecology, movement corridor, biodiversity hot spot, endemic species, restoration ecology, bioremediation, biological augmentation, zoned reserves, sustainable development

Life tables, the three types of survivorship curves, doubling time, population pyramids, ecological footprint, human population, demographic transition, age structure, population pyramids, zero population growth

radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, metazoan, deuterostomes, protostomes, Porifera, Cnidarians, polyp, medusa, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, cuticle, Mollusca, Annelida, segmentation, Arthropoda, Class Arachnida, Class Crustacea, Class Insecta, entomology, metamorphosis, Class Millipede and Centripede, Echinodermata, Chordata, Class Chondrichthyes, Class Osteichthyes, Class Amphibia, Class Reptilia, Class Aves, Class Mammalia
(you may want to skim chapter 18 for this section as well as look at the powerpoints)